Quantum Information Processing
Computing with qubits
Quantum Information Processing focuses on information processing and computing based on quantum mechanics. While current digital computers encode data in binary digits (bits), quantum computers aren't limited to two states. They encode information as quantum bits, or qubits, which can exist in superposition. Qubits can be implemented with atoms, ions, photons or electrons and suitable control devices that work together to act as computer memory and a processor. Because a quantum computer can contain these multiple states simultaneously, they provide an inherent parallelism. This will enable them to solve certain problems much faster than any classical computer using the best currently known algorithms, like integer factorization or the simulation of quantum many-body systems. Right now the quantum computer is still in its infancy. First steps on that road are the simplest building blocks such as quantum logic gates and memory based on genuine quantum effects such as superposition and entanglement.